chinese exclusion act english

The limit on absence from Canada was two years, and the consequence for not returning on time was being barred re-entry. Only ten bodies were identified on February 16, 1888: Chea-po, Chea-Sun, Chea-Yow, Chea-Shun, Chea Cheong, Chea Ling, Chea Chow, Chea Lin Chung, Kong Mun Kow, and Kong Ngan. Americas were afraid of losing their jobs or being paid a smaller wage. [43] Policies and attitudes toward Chinese Americans in the US worked against foreign policy interests by limiting the ability of the US to participate in international education initiatives.[44]. Any Chinese who left the United States had to obtain certifications for reentry, and the Act made Chinese immigrants permanent aliens by excluding them from U.S. In 1967, immigration restrictions on the basis of race and national origin were finally removed. Thus very few Chinese could enter the country under the 1882 law. The Chinese Invasion. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was a historic act of legislation that demonstrated how the federal government of the United States once openly condoned racial discrimination. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. There is no comparison between the Chinaman, even of the lowest coolie class, and the man who comes here from Southeastern Europe, from Russia, or from Southern Italy. News from China did not bring any comfort during the exclusionary years. This guide compiles Library of Congress digital materials, external websites, and a print bibliography. [17][18], The Chinese Exclusion Act required the few non laborers who sought entry to obtain certification from the Chinese government that they were qualified to emigrate. Chinese Exclusion Act n. a law, enacted in 1882, that prohibited [...] all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials from entering the United States. An apology by Christy Clark, premier of British Columbia, followed on 15 May 2014, and a $1 million legacy fund was promised for educational initiatives. Shortly after the U.S. Chinese Exclusion Act, Canada established the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 which imposed a head tax on Chinese migrants entering Canada. In 1891, the Government of China refused to accept U.S. senator Henry W. Blair as U.S. minister to China due to his abusive remarks regarding China during negotiation of the Chinese Exclusion Act. The Chinese Exclusion Act had a ripple effect on the United States' legal history. The urgency to earn money for families in China was so great that desperate times called for desperate solutions. [17] Until these restrictions were relaxed in the middle of the twentieth century, Chinese immigrants were forced to live a life separated from their families, and to build ethnic enclaves in which they could survive on their own (Chinatown). Whether these were true or not cannot be proven. The act was supposed to prevent any racial conflict but in result there was an outburst of violence. An illegal immigration scheme gathered momentum from the head-tax era, one that arranged for people, mostly males, to come to Canada with fraudulent papers claiming false identities. The Chinese Immigration Act, 1923 (the Exclusion Act) was not repealed until May 1947 after much deliberation and hesitation by the federal and British Columbia governments. 27, 1904, ch. . 122—Relative to Chinese Americans in California", "Legislature Recognizes the Contributions of Chinese-Americans & Apologizes for Past Discriminatory Laws", "American Social 'Reminders' of Citizenship after September 11, 2001: Nativisms in the Ethnocratic Retractability of American Identity", "Bitter Melon: Inside America's Last Rural Chinese Town", George Frederick Seward and the Chinese Exclusion Act | "From the Stacks" at New-York Historical Society, George Frederick Seward Papers, MS 557, The New-York Historical Society, Text of 1880 Chinese Exclusion Treaty and 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, Exclusion Act Case Files of Yee Wee Thing and Yee Bing Quai, two "Paper Sons". Some were rescued by a passing train, but by the end of the event at least twenty-eight lives had been taken. Chinese-Canadians were enfranchised, educational benefits were extended to Chinese-Canadian veterans, and Chinese in Canada were free to enter professions from which they were previously barred. These organizations, some of the membership of which was based on shared surnames, some on common place of origin, provided a haven for the bachelor society. The staged photograph is an eerie artifact of the growing anti-Chinese sentiment of the mid-to-late nineteenth century, which culminated in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the Scott Act … Differences in political ideologies resulted in conflicting views about events unfolding in China. Canada and China were now allied, fighting together against a common enemy. The Chinese Exclusion Act American objections to Chinese immigration took many forms, and generally stemmed from economic and cultural tensions, as well as ethnic discrimination. Chinese Exclusion Act 1882. As much as the language of exclusion was removed, Chinese immigrants were still treated inequitably due to Order-in-Council, P.C. Politicians, labour unions and war veterans joined church leaders in demanding the Canadian government repeal its anti-Chinese legislation. Times of social and systemic stability, however, tend to mute whatever underlying tensions exist between different groups. I think, too, that the emigration to America would help the Chinese. The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the U.S.–China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration. Below is a massive list of chinese exclusion act words - that is, words related to chinese exclusion act. During the early stages of the gold rush, when surface gold was plentiful, the Chinese were tolerated by white people, if not well received. Hi there! The Chinese Exclusion Act marked the first time the US explicitly restricted immigration based on race and class. 23—Relative to Chinese Americans in California", "Senate Concurrent Resolution No. [35], Other disagreements on the motives could also be attributed to the fact that the bodies of the Chinese miners were only found downstream after two weeks. Though the Act was repealed in 1947, immigration restrictions on the basis of race and national origin were not fully scrubbed until 1967. The Chinese Exclusion Act was the nation's first law to ban immigration by race or nationality. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress, a ban that . A sanitary campaign was launched; however many residents chose to avoid anything and everything that had to do with the plague out of fear and humiliation. Despite its name as an “immigration” act, in practical terms, persons of Chinese origin were no longer permitted to enter Canada. These “paper sons” adopted new surnames, then came under the identity of someone who was entitled to return to Canada but did not. The issue, however, polarized the Chinese community into two factions: “Serve first, demand rights after” versus “No vote, no fight.”. [4] With the post-Civil War economy in decline by the 1870s, anti-Chinese animosity became politicized by labor leader Denis Kearney and his Workingman's Party[5] as well as by California governor John Bigler, both of whom blamed Chinese "coolies" for depressed wage levels. [48] It is the only chapter of the 15 chapters in Title 8 (Aliens and Nationality) that is completely focused on a specific nationality or ethnic group. In the end, on October 19, 1888, Congress agreed to greatly under-compensate for the massacre and ignore the claims for the earlier crimes. The crackdown on Chinese immigrants reached a new level in its last decade, from 1956–1965, with the Chinese Confession Program launched by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, that encouraged Chinese who had committed immigration fraud to confess, so as to be eligible for some leniency in treatment. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was the first law passed in the United States that excluded a people of a specific ethnicity from immigrating to the country. These laws attempted to stop all Chinese immigration into the United States for ten years, with exceptions for diplomats, teachers, students, merchants, and travelers. It became clear that this punitive entry fee did not discourage Chinese immigration, as intended. 1911 - ca. indvandrede kinesere, der desuden også blev betragtet som racemæssigt underlegne. “The Chinese started to go to Mexico after the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in the United States,” he says. Lisa Mar, Brokering Belonging: Chinese in Canada’s Exclusion Era, 1885-1945 (2010), Anthony B. Chan, Gold Mountain: The Chinese in the New World (1983), Harry Con, Ronald J. Con, Graham Johnson, Edgar Wickberg and William E. Willmott, From China to Canada: A History of the Chinese Communities in Canada (1982). It was created because of fear that Americans were facing when a huge amount of Chinese migrated to the US. Primary source documents and images from the University of California, The Rocky Road to Liberty: A Documented History of Chinese American Immigration and Exclusion, Primary source documents and images related to the documentary "Separate Lives, Broken Dreams", U.S. immigration policy toward the People's Republic of China, One Hundred Years: History of the Chinese in America, Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, Chinese Historical Society of Southern California, List of U.S. cities with significant Chinese-American populations, Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986), Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) (1996), Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act (NACARA) (1997), American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA) (1998), American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act (AC21) (2000), Legal Immigration Family Equity Act (LIFE Act) (2000), Trump administration family separation policy, U.S. Chinese Immigration Act, 1923. The Chinese unemployment rate soared as high as 80 per cent in Vancouver, a sharp contrast to the city’s overall jobless rate of 30.2 per cent in 1931. An accurate account of the event is still unclear to this day due to unreliable law enforcement at the time, biased news reporting, and lack of serious official investigations. chinese exclusion act \chinese exclusion act\ any of several acts forbidding the immigration of chinese laborers into the united states, originally from 1882 to 1892 by act of may 6, 1882, then from 1892 to 1902 by act may 5, 1892. by act of april 29, 1902, all existing legislation on the subject was reënacted and continued, and made applicable to the insular possessions of the united states. "Before restriction became exclusion: America’s experiment in diplomatic immigration control.". Chinese Exclusion Act The title of the document is the Chinese Exclusion Act of May 6, 1882. because the Chinese migrant population was predominantly made up of healthy male adults. One of the most prolific of these students was Tsou Tang, who would go on to become the leading expert on China and Sino-American relations during the Cold War.[45]. Eventually the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed in 1943. Relief payments of $1.12 per week to Chinese people in Alberta, as an example, were less than half of what was given to other Albertans. [7] In 1858, the California Legislature passed a law that made it illegal for any person "of the Chinese or Mongolian races" to enter the state; however, this law was struck down by an unpublished opinion of the State Supreme Court in 1862. Left untreated this infection can cause complications such as gangrene,[38] meningitis, and even death. Findley believed the massacre was a planned event with more than just a motive to steal gold from the Chinese miners. "[18], Between 1882 and 1905, about 10,000 Chinese appealed against negative immigration decisions to federal court, usually via a petition for habeas corpus. As more and more deaths occurred, the city began being more aggressive, and they started checking nearly everyone in Chinatown for any signs of disease. A mere handful had the financial means to make a trip to China a few times during the exclusionary years to either marry or visit their wives and children. Sharp. The Chinese Exclusion Act did not address the problems that whites were facing; in fact, the Chinese were quickly and eagerly replaced by the Japanese, who assumed the role of the Chinese in society. At around the same time, other compensation reports were also unsuccessfully filed for earlier crimes inflicted on the Chinese. 126, 22 Stat. There was also a need for this kind of border control along the U.S–Mexico border, however, efforts to control the border went along a different path because Mexico was fearful of expanding imperial power of the U.S. and did not want U.S. interference in Mexico. While many of these legislative efforts were quickly overturned by the State Supreme Court,[6] many more anti-Chinese laws continued to be passed in both California and nationally. The Canadian government’s most racist and exclusionary law, however, was the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885. In high schools and colleges it’s taught that the act was simply another example of American racism. (The “yellow peril” reference to Chinese and Japanese people originated in the late 1800s after they arrived as labourers in the United States and Canada; it expressed Western prejudice towards East Asian immigrants.) Anarchist Exclusion Act (deutsch etwa: Anarchistenausschlussgesetz) bezieht sich auf zwei Gesetze, die ab 1901 bis 1918 vom United States Congress verabschiedet wurden, um Personen, die anarchistische Ideen vertraten, an der Einreise in die USA zu hindern. However, only compensations for destroyed property were paid. The whereabouts of the gold were never recovered nor further investigated. It was passed after a campaign against Chinese workers, which included violent assaults. Chinese Exclusion Act: Primary Documents in American History On May 6, 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act was signed into law, prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers for ten years. No-one was arrested nor held accountable for the atrocities committed during the riot. [35], An amount of gold worth $4,000–$5,000 was estimated to have been stolen from the miners. However, this group found it increasingly difficult to prove that they were not laborers[18] because the 1882 act defined excludables as "skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining." The Chinese Exclusion Act was approved on May 6, 1882. All these developments, along with the extension of the act in 1902, triggered a boycott of U.S. goods in China between 1904 and 1906. Davis’s speech led to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 that barred Chinese people from immigrating to the United States. After the Second World War, the repeal of this discriminatory legislation, the gaining of the right to vote and the establishment of the Canadian Citizenship Act in 1947 were the first steps to increased and more equitable inclusion into Canadian life. CHAPTER 7 —EXCLUSION OF CHINESE Editorial Notes Codification Former chapter 7 of this title included the provisions of the several Chinese Exclusion acts, beginning with the temporary act of May 6, 1882, ch. Translation of Chinese exclusion act in English. At least he would come into contact with some real Christian people in America. The Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed by the 1943 Magnuson Act, during a time when China had become an ally of the U.S. against Japan in World War II as the US needed to embody an image of fairness and justice. exclusion translate: 排斥;排除在外. In this period, anti-Chinese Americans physically forced Chinese communities to flee to other areas. 683, a resolution which had been introduced by Congresswoman Judy Chu, that formally expresses the regret of the House of Representatives for the Chinese Exclusion Act, an act which imposed almost total restrictions on Chinese immigration and naturalization and denied Chinese-Americans basic freedoms because of their ethnicity. During the 24-year period of exclusion between 1923 and 1947 (when the Exclusion Act was finally repealed), fewer than 100 Chinese were allowed to enter Canada. The laws were widely evaded. Although most Chinese people turned to their traditional associations for financial assistance, those who had to rely on the government received less money than expected. The penalty for noncompliance was imprisonment or a fine of up to $500. The second major Chinese influx to the province came as labourers for the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (1881–85), a labour force much needed for the development of Western Canada but not desirable as citizens for a “White Canada forever.” This popular phrase among politicians and the media was derived from the White Canada policy laid down in the Immigration Act of 1910. Delegations of Chinese and non-Chinese individuals made annual visits to Ottawa to lobby for an immigration policy that would ease family reunification. Nationwide campaigns lobbied the federal government for over 20 years to apologize for the injustices of its past anti-Chinese immigration policies. A strike which was broken by the replacement of all workers with over 200 Chinese men at the Beaver Falls Cutlery Company in Pennsylvania was mentioned at the Pennsylvania General Assembly and Congress. d. Chinese immigration later increased with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which abolished direct racial barriers, and later by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which abolished the National Origins Formula. Not only this, but Chinese immigration to Mexico was welcomed because the Chinese immigrants filled Mexico's labor needs. On June 18, 2012, the United States House of Representatives passed H.Res. Under that law, a $50 head tax was levied on all Chinese immigrants. Without a certificate, he or she faced deportation. It was the first significant law restricting immigration into the United States. Translate Chinese exclusion act in English online and download now our free translator to use any time at no charge. [7] The Chinese emperor at the time was supportive of the exclusion, citing his concerns that Chinese immigration to America would lead to a loss of labor for China. LESSON 4-The Chinese Exclusion Act Aim: Why was Chinese Immigration restricted in 1882?Do now: Watch the You Tube Video: The Chinese Exclusion Act-posted separately on Google Classroom Write one thing you learned from the video ***Write your response here: One thing I learned from the video is that over 200,00 Chinese immigrants came to America to escape poverty and to seek more opportunities. [36] The American economy suffered a great loss as a result of this act. This order stipulated that entrance was limited to only spouses and children (under the age of 18) of Canadian citizens at a time when only 8 per cent of Chinese-born residents were naturalized citizens. And if the same thing were done in the Philippines those islands would be a veritable Garden of Eden in twenty-five years. Chinese Exclusion Act: translation. The school boys initially only had intentions to steal horses, but experienced difficulty crossing the river with the stolen horses. The laws were driven largely by racial concerns; immigration of persons of other races was unlimited during this period. The Chinese Exclusion Act also led to an expansion of the power of U.S. immigration law through its influence on Canada's policies on Chinese exclusion during this time because of the need for greater vigilance at the U.S.-Canada border. It is unclear if the mangled bodies found were due to human manslaughter or the aftermath of being thrown into turbulent waters. The passage of the act started a new era in which the United States changed from a country that welcomed almost … While the Magnuson Act overturned the discriminatory Chinese Exclusion Act, it only allowed a national quota of 105 Chinese immigrants per year, and did not repeal the restrictions on immigration from the other Asian countries. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Unsanitary conditions and population density caused outbreaks such as this one to spread quickly, and therefore affected a large number of people in this community. Collection of primary source documents relating to the Chinese Exclusion Act, from Harvard University. Answers: 2 on a question: Last and final question The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was primarily a response to- a increased U. S. presence in China b competition for jobs on the West Coast c China’s actions during the Boxer Rebellion d rapid population growth in the Northeast How did the Nineteenth Amendment expand the democratic process? In times of societal crisis—whether perceived or real—patterns of retractability of American identities have erupted to the forefront of America's political landscape, often generating institutional and civil society backlash against workers from other nations, a pattern documented by Fong's research into how crises drastically alter social relationships. Senate Republican leader Bob Huff (R-Diamond Bar) and incoming Senate president pro-Tem Kevin de León (D-Los Angeles) served as joint authors for Senate Joint Resolution (SJR) 23[51] and Senate Concurrent Resolution (SCR) 122,[52] respectively. [42], Recruitment of foreign students to US colleges and universities was an important component in the expansion of American influence. Legislation. On 22 June 2006, Prime Minister Stephen Harper formally apologized for the head tax (1885–1923) and exclusionary legislation (1923–47). The initial version of the act prevented certain kinds of Chinese laborers from entering the United States, reserving immigration rights only for teachers, merchants, officials, teachers, merchants and travelers. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act banned Chinese workers and specifically barred them from naturalization. "It's the new Chinese Exclusion Act," said Stewart Kwoh, founder of Asian Americans Advancing Justice — Los Angeles, referring to the 1882 law that barred Chinese … Andrew Gyory talked about the signing of the Chinese Exclusion Act on May 6, 1882, and how it set the precedent for future anti-immigration laws. The anti-Chinese movement took root after the first wave of Chinese immigrants began arriving in British Columbia for the gold rush of 1858. [35], Horner and Findley were both schoolboys at the time of the massacre but their accounts had glaring discrepancies. On the other hand, Horner believed that the event was a spur of the moment event and affected 34 confirmed victims. There are 294 chinese exclusion act-related words in total, with the top 5 most semantically related being pretender, act, roleplay, reenactment and enact.You can get the definition(s) of a word in the list below by tapping the question-mark icon next to it. a By prohibiting discrimination in voting on … Even though the amount was greatly underpaid, it was still a small victory to the Chinese who had low expectations for relief or acknowledgement. Harry Con, Ronald J. Con, Graham Johnson, Edgar Wickberg and William E. Willmott, Chan, A., Chinese Immigration Act (2017). If you're wondering why the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was passed, then your search ends right here! [15] Although widespread dislike for the Chinese persisted well after the law itself was passed, of note is that some capitalists and entrepreneurs resisted their exclusion because they accepted lower wages. 58) created a ten-year Moratorium on the immigration of Chinese laborers into the United States. [36] Some sources cite the act as a sign of injustice and unfair treatment to the Chinese workers because the jobs they engaged in were mostly menial jobs.[37]. citizenship. The price was high, not only for the cost of the fake identity, but also the subsequent years of living in fear of being deported back to China and keeping secret their real names, even from their descendants. [34], The massacre was named for the location where it took place, along the Snake River in Hells Canyon near the mouth of Deep Creek. [30] However, the Japanese were later targeted in the National Origins Act of 1924, which banned immigration from east Asia entirely. The Chinese Exclusion Act was the first immigration law that excluded an entire ethnic group. In 1947, Canada repealed the Chinese Immigration Act. The four exceptions to the exclusion were students, merchants (excluding laundry, restaurant and retail operators), diplomats and Canadian-born Chinese returning from education in China. In Chinese Exclusion Act: The act…with the passage of the Magnuson Act, which permitted a quota of 105 Chinese immigrants annually. All Chinese people--except travelers, merchants, teachers, students, and those born in the United States--were barred from entering In. Synopsis. For all practical purposes, the Exclusion Act, along with the restrictions that followed it, froze the Chinese community in place in 1882. [24] Congressman Rufus Dawes who voted against the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act was not reelected to Congress. [41] Racism toward Chinese immigrants was socially accepted and social rights were oftentimes denied to this community. Historyplex tells you what was the purpose of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, along with several facts about its background, causes, … The Great Depression (1929–39) added an additional layer of hardship. Graphic Organizer: English III: Writing: Module 1: Lesson 8: Section 3 Making Connections Between a US National Archives series: Chinese Exclusion Act Case Files, compiled ca. [9], The Chinese immigrant workers provided cheap labor and did not use any of the government infrastructure (schools, hospitals, etc.) Workingmen's Address", University of California, Hastings College of the Law, "Where Does Trump's 'Invasion' Rhetoric Come From? The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following 1880 revisions to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. The Chinese Exclusion Act actually led to heightened Chinese immigration to Mexico because of exclusion by the U.S. Diplomatic officials and other officers on business, along with their house servants, for the Chinese government were also allowed entry as long as they had the proper certification verifying their credentials. For other immigrants, there were no such restrictions. The outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 marked a turning point in Chinese Canadian history. That is why the laborers here hate them. Wikisource has several original texts related to: Anderson, David L. "The Diplomacy of Discrimination: Chinese Exclusion, 1876-1882", Lew-Williams, Beth. [35], The US Board on Geographic Names officially named the Deep Creek massacre site to the Chinese Massacre Cove. See Spanish-English translations with audio pronunciations, examples, and word-by-word explanations. Workingmen’s Address. The passing of the Chinese Immigration Act was one such occasion. Men in the bachelor society who dreamed of bringing their families to Canada were largely disappointed for another 20 years. Bearing such harsh conditions, Chinese people retreated into small businesses such as laundries, restaurants and grocery stores. Once the Chinese Exclusion Act was enacted, the government officials were merciless and arrested every Chinese men they could find, regardless of the fact that some of them do own the proper paperwork to stay in the United States. [3] However, as gold became harder to find and competition increased, animosity toward the Chinese and other foreigners increased. There were rare instances, however, that brought disparate groups together. This served as the first ever official recognition of the crime. The Chinese Exclusion Act was enacted on May 6, 1882. Most Chinese laborers who came to the United States did so in order to send money back … The real story is more complex, requiring (among other things) some understanding of the economic impact of Chinese laborers on the wages of American workingmen in California in the mid-19th century. The presence of Chinese workmen in this country would, in my opinion, do a very great deal toward solving our labor problems. 58, which, as being then in force, were, by act Apr. [32], Following the passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act, a period known as the "Driving Out" era was born. [43] Laws and regulations that stemmed from the Act made for less than ideal situations for Chinese students, leading to criticisms of American society. Amendments made in 1884 tightened the provisions that allowed previous immigrants to leave and return, and clarified that the law applied to ethnic Chinese regardless of their country of origin. The Chinese Exclusion Act was America's first and only immigration act that barred people from a specific country from coming to the United States. [14] Although debate exists over whether or not the anti-Chinese animus in California drove the federal government (the California Thesis), or whether or not Chinese racism was simply inherent in the country at that point, by 1882, the federal government was finally convinced to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned all immigration from China for a period of 10 years. The Chinese in Canada could now assume their rightful place as valued Canadian citizens. It was the culmination of several decades' worth of agitation on the part of white workers in the United States, as well as violence directed against Chinese workers. 1976 (21 F) Media in category "Chinese Exclusion Act" The following 200 files are … exclusion translate: 排斥;排除在外. The act later became known misleadingly as the Chinese Exclusion Act. The IWW openly opposed the Chinese Exclusion Act from its inception in 1905.[27]. Canada’s discriminatory immigration law and resultant policies worked to limit the number of new arrivals from China, and it’s believed that only 44 Chinese were able to immigrate here legally between 1923 and 1947, when the Act was repealed.

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